Author(s): Brsen JH, Leppnen O, Inkala M, Heikura T, Levin M,
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether local gene therapy with extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) could inhibit in-stent restenosis in atherosclerotic Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. BACKGROUND: Stenting causes an acute increase in superoxide anion production and oxidative stress; EC-SOD is a major component of antioxidative defense in blood vessels and has powerful cardioprotective effects in ischemic myocardium. METHODS: Endothelial denudation and stenting were done in 36 adult (15 to 18 months old) rabbits. Catheter-mediated intramural delivery of clinical good manufacturing practice-grade adenoviruses encoding rabbit EC-SOD were done simultaneously with stenting. Control animals received adenovirus-encoding nuclear-targeted beta-galactosidase (AdLacZ). Circulating markers for oxidative stress (nonesterified 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 alpha) were measured. Analysis of 6-day, 28-day, and 90-day vessel histology, radical production, oxidation-specific epitopes, and expression studies were performed. RESULTS: The EC-SOD treatment reduced oxidant production in stented vessels compared with control vessels. Early systemic recovery of total SOD activity was observed in the treated rabbits. The EC-SOD significantly accelerated endothelial recovery (67.4\% +/- 10.8\% vs. 24.2.1\% +/- 4.6\% at 6 days, p < 0.05; 89.3\% +/- 3.7\% vs. 45.1\% +/- 9.6\% at 28 days, p < 0.05), and the beneficial effect involved increased proliferation of regenerating endothelium. The EC-SOD group showed a 61.3\% lower (p < 0.05) neointimal formation at 28 days, with a similar, albeit nonsignificant trend at 90 days (1.20 +/- 0.32 mm2 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.24 mm2, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a central pathogenetic role of oxidation sensitive signaling processes in endothelial recovery and developing in-stent restenosis in atherosclerotic vessels. Local therapy against oxidative stress represents a promising therapeutic strategy in stent-induced vascular injury.
This article was published in J Am Coll Cardiol
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine