Author(s): Cacace JE, Mazza G, Cacace JE, Mazza G
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Abstract Health benefits of fruits, vegetables, and red wine are attributed to anthocyanins and other phytochemicals. In this research, the extraction of phenolics from black currants was optimized using different SO(2) concentrations (28, 300, 700, 1100, and 1372 ppm), temperatures (6, 20, 40, 60, and 74 degrees C), and solvent to solid ratios (S/S) (6, 20, 40, 60, and 74 mL/g). Surface response methodology was used to optimize yields of anthocyanins and total phenolics, as well as their antiradical and antioxidant activities. The extraction of phenolics varied with the SO(2) concentration, S/S, and temperature. Maximum yields of total phenolics and anthocyanins were obtained at an SO(2) concentration of 1000-1200 ppm and 19 L of solvent/kg of milled frozen berries. The increase of extraction temperature increased the rate of extraction and, thus, times to reach equilibrium for the extraction of total phenolics and anthocyanins were reduced. However, for the extraction of anthocyanins it is recommended that temperatures of 30-35 degrees C be used, as higher temperatures will degrade these compounds. Antioxidant activity was affected by all three experimental variables evaluated; however, the main variable affecting it was S/S. The higher the S/S, the lower the antioxidant index.
This article was published in J Agric Food Chem
and referenced in Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques