Author(s): Chia SE, Lim ST, Tay SK, Lim ST
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the likely risk factors, such as smoking and drinking habits, and occupational groups, for infertility in a group of infertile men with no known cause, compared with a group of fertile men; and to examine the effects of the semen parameters, such as volume, density, motility, viability and normal morphology, on fertility. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: The department of obstetric and gynaecology of a tertiary general hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred and forty consecutive male partners of couples trying to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, the cases comprised 218 men who had no known cause for their infertility. Two hundred and forty men whose wives were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. RESULTS: The semen parameters (e.g. density, total sperm counts, motility, viability and normal morphology) of all cases were significantly poorer than that of the controls. The risk of infertility is associated with smoking (crude OR 2 x 82, 95\% CI 1 x 93-4 x 13; adjusted OR 2 x 96; 95\% CI 1 x 98-4 x 42). Technicians (adjusted OR 2 x 81; 95\% CI 1 x 51-4 x 24) and professional, senior officials and managers were also at a greater risk of infertility (adjusted OR 2 x 36; 95\% CI 1 x 26-4 x 40), compared with service and clerical workers. The significant factors predicting infertility were smoking, density of sperm, and viability of sperm. Smoking increased the odds of being infertile. Higher sperm counts and larger percentage of viable sperm decrease the odds of infertility. Based on the multiple logistic regression model, the odds ratio for infertility = (94 x 70) x (2 x 88(smoking)) X (0 x 29(logdensity)) X (0 x 95(viability)). CONCLUSION: Smoking, density of sperm and the viability of sperm are significant predictors for infertility among men.
This article was published in BJOG
and referenced in Andrology-Open Access