Author(s): Blackshear PJ, Holloway PA, Alberti KG
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Abstract 1. Factors regulating the release of alanine and glutamine in vivo were investigated in starved rats by removing the liver from the circulation and monitoring blood metabolite changes for 30 min. 2. Alanine and glutamine were the predominant amino acids released into the circulation in this preparation. 3. Dichloroacetate, an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, inhibited net alanine release: it also interfered with the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine. 4. L-Cycloserine, an inhibitor of alanine aminotransferase, decreased alanine accumulation by 80\% after functional hepatectomy, whereas methionine sulphoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, decreased glutamine accumulation by the same amount. 5. It was concluded that: (a) the alanine aminotransferase and the glutamine synthetase pathways respectively were responsible for 80\% of the alanine and glutamine released into the circulation by the extrasplanchnic tissues, and extrahepatic proteolysis could account for a maximum of 20\%; (b) alanine formation by the peripheral tissues was dependent on availability of pyruvate and not of glutamate; (c) glutamate availability could influence glutamine formation subject, possibly, to renal control.
This article was published in Biochem J
and referenced in Biology and Medicine