Author(s): Uysal MA, Kadakal F, Karida C, Bayram NG, Uysal O,
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Abstract Fagerstom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) has often been used as a measure of physical dependence on nicotine. In this study, we aimed to verify the usefulness of FTND and Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) in a sample of Turkish smokers and present relationship among interrelated items in our Turkish version of FTND by factor analysis. One hundred sixty nine smokers, 104 (61.5\%) males, 65 (38.5\%) females smoker were administered the Turkish translation of FTND. Fifty-two current smokers selected randomly from 169 were administered the questionnaire for test- retest reliability analysis. The Turkish version of FTND had moderate reliability (Cronbach alpha: 0.56). One FTND item (question 3: hate- most to give up) performed poorly on construct reliability tests. Factor 1 was loaded by questions 1 (first cigarette after awakening), 4 (number of cigarettes per day), 5 (smoking status during the first hours), 6 (smoking if ill), 2 (refrain from smoking in forbidden places) and factor 2 was separately loaded by question 3. Question 3 did not have significant correlation with the total score and the response to this question was significant between test and retest. The Turkish version of FTND may become a measuring tool in the assessment of smoking cessation programs. However, question 3 must be used attentively and preferably an explanation should be made to enable a clear understanding of the question to the Turkish smokers as they take the test.
This article was published in Tuberk Toraks
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy