Author(s): Rauh G, Keller C, Schuster H, Wolfram G, Zllner N
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Abstract Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) is a recently identified dominantly inherited genetic disorder characterized by a decreased binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the LDL receptor due to defective apo B-100. FDB is caused by a G to A mutation at nucleotide 10,708 in exon 26 of the apo B gene creating a substitution of glutamine for arginine in the codon for amino acid 3500. The arginine (3500)----glutamine mutation has been observed in several populations in North America and Europe with a similar frequency of approximately 1/500 to 1/700. Haplotype analysis has demonstrated that the arginine(3500)----glutamine mutation occurs on the same chromosomal background. The fact that all individuals with FDB are of Caucasian extraction implies that the mutation has its origin in this population. The arginine(3500)----glutamine mutation has a profound impact of varying strength on the plasma LDL cholesterol level, leading to heterogeneous clinical expression comparable to "classic" familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) caused by a defective LDL receptor: tendon xanthoma, premature atherosclerosis and arcus lipoides. The present data suggest that the combination of these clinical features is no longer appropriate for the diagnosis of LDL-receptor-defective FH, but may be a common feature of a defective LDL receptor pathway originating either from defective LDL receptors or from malfunctioning ligand apo B-100.
This article was published in Clin Investig
and referenced in Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis