alexa Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: advances in the genetic basis, diagnosis and management.

Journal of Thrombosis and Circulation: Open Access

Author(s): Gholam C, Grigoriadou S, Gilmour KC, Gaspar HB, Gholam C, Grigoriadou S, Gilmour KC, Gaspar HB

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation associated with uncontrolled T cell and macrophage activation and hypercytokinaemia. The incidence of FHL is 0·12/100·000 children born per year, with a male to female ratio of 1:1. The disease is classified into six different types based on genetic linkage analysis and chromosomal localization; five specific genetic defects have been identified, which account for approximately 90\% of all patients. Type 1 is due to an as yet unidentified gene defect located on chromosome nine. Type 2 is caused by mutations in the perforin (PRF1) gene, type 3 by mutations in the Munc-13-4 (UNC13D) gene, type 4 by mutations in the syntaxin 11 (STX11) gene and the recently described type 5 due to mutations in the gene encoding syntaxin binding protein 2 (STXBP-2). The incidence of the five types varies in different ethnic groups. The most common presenting features are pyrexia of unknown origin, pronounced hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenias. Neurological features tend to present later and are associated with poor prognosis. Absent or decreased lymphocyte cytotoxicity is the cellular hallmark of FHL. Biochemical features such as hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and hypofibrinogenaemia are usually present, along with high levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Bone marrow aspirate may demonstrate the characteristic haemophagocytes, but initially is non-diagnostic in two-thirds of patients. Established international clinical, haematological and biochemical criteria now facilitate accurate clinical diagnosis. The disease is fatal unless a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is performed. The introduction of HSCT has dramatically improved the prognosis of the disease. However, the mortality of the disease is still significantly high and a number of challenges remain to be addressed. Active disease at the time of the transplant is the major significant poor prognostic factor. Delayed diagnosis, after irreversible organ damage has occurred, especially neurological damage, disease reoccurrence and pre-transplant mortality, remain a concern. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.
This article was published in Clin Exp Immunol and referenced in Journal of Thrombosis and Circulation: Open Access

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version