Author(s): Llanos AA, Krok JL, Peng J, Pennell ML, OlivoMarston S,
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Abstract PURPOSE: The most effective dietary pattern for breast cancer prevention has been greatly debated in recent years. Studies have examined hypocaloric diets, with particular emphasis on macronutrient composition, yielding inconclusive data. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of calorie-restricted low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets (LFD and LCD, respectively) on circulating adipokines among overweight and obese premenopausal women. METHODS: Seventy-nine overweight and obese premenopausal women were randomized to either LFD or LCD, with increased physical activity, for 52 weeks. Serum adiponectin, leptin and the adiponectin-to-leptin ratio (A/L) were measured at baseline, and at weeks 34 and 52 to assess intervention effects. RESULTS: While there were no significant changes in serum adiponectin concentrations following the LCD and LFD interventions, leptin concentrations significantly decreased by week 34 of the intervention period (LCD: 35.3\%, P = 0.004; LFD: 30.0\%, P = 0.01), with no difference by intervention arm. At week 52, these reductions were statistically non-significant, indicating a return to baseline levels by the end of the intervention. While there were non-significant increases in the A/L ratio following the LCD and LFD intervention arms, the overall trend, across groups, was marginally significant (P = 0.05) with increases of 16.2\% and 35.1\% at weeks 34 and 52, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that caloric-restricted LCD and LFD dietary patterns favorably modify leptin and possibly the A/L ratio, and lend support to the hypothesis that these interventions may be effective for obesity-related breast cancer prevention through their effects on biomarkers involved in metabolic pathways. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01559194.
This article was published in Springerplus
and referenced in Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy