Author(s): Eustace LW, Kang DH, Coombs D
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To provide an integrated review of the literature on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), focusing on the definition of FAS/FAE, their incidence and related problems, gestational research findings, FAS symptoms, the effects of prenatal alcohol consumption on offspring over time, and FAS/FAE preventive measures. DATA SOURCES: Computerized searches of MEDLINE and Web sites, as well as reference lists from published articles on FAS/FAE from 1973 to present. STUDY SELECTION: Literature was chosen from refereed journals and from current publications of the National Organization of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted using keywords relevant to FAS and FAS prevention. DATA SYNTHESIS: The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can harm the fetus irreparably. Preventive measures can be helpful in decreasing or stopping the use of alcohol during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is a definite teratogen. The amount of alcohol, if any, that can be safely consumed during pregnancy, the exact physiological mechanisms that make alcohol unsafe for the fetus, and the most effective prevention measures have yet to be identified. FAS/FAE is still increasing in the United States.
This article was published in J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals