alexa Floatation and control of granular sludge in a high-rate anammox reactor.
Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

International Journal of Waste Resources

Author(s): Chen J, Ji Q, Zheng P, Chen T, Wang C,

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Abstract The granule floatation is a serious issue of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process when high loading rates are applied that results in instability or even system collapse. The present study reports the granule floatation in an anammox reactor when high loading rates were applied. The comparison of enlarged photos taken for the settling and floating granules showed that the two kinds of granules both contained macroscopic gas pockets accounting for 11 +/- 14\% of total volume. The settling granules had gas tunnels that could release the gas bubbles, while the floating granules did not. The presence of gas bubbles enclosed in the gas pockets led to the small density of 979.2 +/- 15.8 mg L(-1) and flotation of anammox granules. Consequently, the flotation caused washout of anammox granules and the deterioration of anammox process (volumetric removal rate decreased from 4.00 to 2.46 kg N m(-3) d(-1)). The collection of floating granules, breaking them into small pieces and then returning to the anammox reactor proved an effective control strategy. The volumetric removal rate was finally up to 16.5 kg N m(-3) d(-1) after the control strategy was put into use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This article was published in Water Res and referenced in International Journal of Waste Resources

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