alexa Fluorescence staining and flow cytometry for monitoring microbial cells.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

Author(s): Veal DA, Deere D, Ferrari B, Piper J, Attfield PV

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Large numbers of microbiological samples are analysed annually using traditional culture-based techniques. These techniques take hours to days to yield a result, are tedious and are not suitable for non-culturable microorganisms. Further, culture-based techniques do not provide real-time information on the physiological status of the organism in situ which is important in the industrial manufacture of many microbial products. Flow cytometry offers the prospect of real-time microbial analysis of individual microorganisms, without dependency on microbial culture. However, flow cytometry has not been extensively used as a tool for routine microbial analysis. This has been mainly due to the high cost and complexity of instrumentation, the need for trained flow cytometrists and the lack of assay kits with appropriate biological reagents for specific applications. Many modern instruments are now relatively simple to operate, due to improvements in the user-interface, and no longer need a specialist operator. However, most cytometers are still reliant on analogue technology first developed 20-30 years ago. The incorporation of modern, solid state opto-electronics combined with micro-fabrication and digital signal processing technology offers the prospect of simple to use, low cost and robust instruments suitable for microbial analyses. Advances are being made in the development of a range of biological reagents and these are now being formulated into simple to use kits for microbiological applications. Currently, these kits are largely restricted to simple analyses, for example to assay for total or viable numbers of microorganisms present. However, technologies are available to selectively label specific types of microorganisms. For example, fluorescent antibodies can be used to label microorganisms according to expression of particular antigens, fluorescent in situ hybridisation to label according to phylogeny and fluorogenic enzymatic substrates to label according to expression of specific enzyme activities. Reagents are also available that stain viruses sufficiently brightly to enable their direct detection in environments such as sea water. Microorganisms need to be detected in a variety of different matrices (e.g., water, mud, food, and beverages) and these matrices may be highly variable in nature (e.g., tap water compared to river water). Many matrices have high background autofluorescence (e.g., algae and minerals in water samples) or may bind non-specifically to the fluorescent biological reagents used (e.g., protein micelles in milk). Formulation of biological reagents and sample pre-treatments are critical to the development of suitable microbiological assays. Here, developments in instrumentation and biological reagents for microbiological applications are reviewed with specific examples from environmental or industrial microbiology. The broader considerations for the development of microbial assays for flow cytometry are also considered.
This article was published in J Immunol Methods and referenced in Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords