alexa Folate intake and folate serum levels in men and women from two European populations: The IMMIDIET project
Nutrition

Nutrition

Vitamins & Minerals

Author(s): George Pounis, Augusto F Di Castelnuovo, Michel de Lorgeril, Vittorio Krogh, Alfonso Siani

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Objective Folate status has been associated with neural tube defects and cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in folate status in two European Union countries and to assess their possible association with dietary patterns and/or other lifestyles. Methods In the framework of the European Union-funded IMMIDIET Project, 1068 individuals (534 male–female pairs), ages 26 to 64 y, were enrolled in Italy and the United Kingdom. One-year-recall food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate dietary intake. Reduced rank regression analysis was used to derive a dietary pattern better describing high dietary folate intake. Results Of the total participants, 11.3% of the Italians and 45.1% of the British exceeded the optimal dietary folate intake of 400 μg/d (Recommended Dietary Allowance). Of the women, 66.7% and 22.1% of Italian and British women, respectively, all at childbearing age, had folate serum levels <6.62 ng/mL (P = 0.01). The percentage of total variance of dietary folate intake explained by food group consumption was 14.2% and 16.3% in Italy and the United Kingdom, respectively. Reduced rank regression analysis indicated a healthy pattern that was positively associated with folate serum levels in both countries (for all β-coefficients >0; P < 0.001): 100 μg/d increase in dietary folate intake was associated with 13.8% and 10.5% increase in folate serum levels in the Italian and British population, respectively (for 100 μg/d increase eβ-coef = 1.138 and 1.105; P < 0.001). Smoking habit was negatively but physical activity positively associated with folate serum levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions An inadequate dietary folate intake and subsequent serum levels were observed in the Italian participants. High consumption of food sources of folate was positively associated with folate serum levels, explaining a good proportion of its variability.

This article was published in Nutrition and referenced in Vitamins & Minerals

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  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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