alexa Forecasting in vivo oral absorption and food effect of micronized and nanosized aprepitant formulations in humans.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability

Author(s): Shono Y, Jantratid E, Kesisoglou F, Reppas C, Dressman JB

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Abstract This study coupled results from biorelevant dissolution tests with in silico simulation technology to forecast in vivo oral absorption of micronized and nanosized aprepitant formulations in the pre- and post-prandial states. In vitro dissolution tests of the nanosized aprepitant formulation and micronized drug were performed in biorelevant and compendial media. An in silico physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed based on STELLA software using dissolution kinetics, standard gastrointestinal (GI) parameters and post-absorptive disposition parameters. GI parameters (gastric emptying rate and GI fluid volume) were varied according to the dosing conditions. Disposition parameters were estimated by fitting compartmental models to the in vivo oral PK data. Predictions of in vivo performance in each prandial state were evaluated using the AUC and C(max) generated from the simulated PK profiles. To predict oral absorption from the extremely fast dissolving nanosized aprepitant formulation, several variations on a previously published model were evaluated. Although models that assumed that the formulation behaved as an oral solution or that adjusted the dissolution kinetics according to the different numbers of particles per gram between micronized and nanosized aprepitant generated profiles similar to the observed in vivo data in the fed state, simulated profiles for the fasted state showed much faster absorption than that observed in the in vivo data. This appeared to result from the assumption of no absorption restrictions in those models. To better predict in vivo performance in both fasted and fed states, a model that adds permeability restrictions to absorption was applied. This model not only simulated the in vivo profiles for aprepitant well in both prandial states, but also predicted the dependency of the pharmacokinetics on the dose and the particle size of aprepitant. In conclusion, a model based on STELLA software combined with dissolution results in biorelevant media successfully forecasts the in vivo performance of both nanosized and micronized formulations of aprepitant in the fed and fasted states. Although dissolution is the primary limitation to the rate of absorption for micronized aprepitant, some permeability restrictions are revealed for the nanosized formulation. The results also indicate that biorelevant dissolution media have strong advantages over compendial media in forecasting the in vivo behavior of aprepitant. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This article was published in Eur J Pharm Biopharm and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability

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