alexa Formation of gas-phase clusters monitored during electrospray mass spectrometry: a study of quaternary ammonium pesticides.
Chemical Engineering

Chemical Engineering

Mass Spectrometry & Purification Techniques

Author(s): Evans CS, Startin JR, Goodall DM, Keely BJ

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Abstract Gas-phase cluster formation between the quaternary ammonium pesticides paraquat, diquat, difenzoquat, chlormequat and mepiquat, and chloride and acetate anions present in a liquid chromatography (LC) mobile phase, has been studied using electrospray mass spectrometry. The clusters of paraquat, mepiquat and chlormequat were revealed over the entire m/z range of the mass spectrometer, and their formation is dependent on the concentrations of both the cationic and the anionic species. Mepiquat and chlormequat form clusters of the type [2M(q)(+) + A(-)](+), where M(q)(+) is the quaternary ammonium cation and A(-) is the anion. Paraquat forms a cluster species with ammonia and also an ion-pair complex with chloride anions. Diquat and difenzoquat did not form observable ion-pair complexes or clusters with any of the anions studied. Competitive binding of acetate and chloride anions reflects the higher charge density of chloride, which forms the dominant clusters with mepiquat and chlormequat. The formation of cluster species has implications for the quantification of quaternary ammonium pesticides and may have an influence on the linearity of calibrations. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article was published in Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom and referenced in Mass Spectrometry & Purification Techniques

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