Author(s): Li Y, Zhang KL, Sun Y, Yang Y, Chen XY,
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Abstract S100A4 promotes cancer metastasis, but its overall status and splicing manner during gastrocarcinogenesis remains less known. We therefore examined S100A4 frequencies, splicing pattern(s) and the underlying reason(s) for S100A4 expression in gastric cancers. Immunohistochemistry revealed frequent S100A4 expression in intestinal gastric cancers (37/45; 82\%) and diffuse gastric cancers (12/20; 60\%), but uncommon in noncancerous epithelia (0/12), chronic gastritis (2/24; 8\%), and intestinal metaplasia (3/15; 20\%). Of 65 primary tumors, 18 were found with focal S100A4 expression, while their LN metastases showed homogenous distribution. S100A4-oriented reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction yielded a transcript containing exons 1, 3, and 4 (AS1) in 20\% of noncancerous, 84\% premalignant, and 92\% tumor tissues and a transcript harboring exons 1 to 4 (AS2) in 65\% of gastric cancers (GCs), 26\% premalignant but none in noncancerous tissues. Further analyses found AS1 expression in stromal but not epithelial cells of premalignant tissues, absence of AS2 in endoscopic inflammatory mucosa, and the coexistence of AS1/AS2 in the cultured fibroblasts. Methylation DNA sequencing revealed hypermethylation of four critical CpG sites within S100A4 intron first among S100A4-negative gastric tissues and hypomethylation in S100A4-expressing GC tissues/cell lines. E-cadherin reduction and Wnt activation were common in gastric cancers, which were closely correlated but unnecessarily overlapped with S100A4 expression. Our findings suggest that S100A4 expression is closely related with GC formation, which, as a hypomethylation event, is accompanied with E-cadherin reduction and Wnt activation. The preferential S100A4 AS2 expression in GC cells would have potential values in GC surveillance and prognostic assessment.
This article was published in Transl Oncol
and referenced in Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis