alexa From clock genes to telomeres in the regulation of the healthspan.


Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences

Author(s): Kagawa Y

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Abstract Biological clocks are classified into oscillatory (clock genes) and unidirectional hourglass clocks (telomeres). Clock genes align behavioral and biochemical processes with the day/night cycle. Telomeres, the repeated series of DNA sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes, become shorter during cell division. Shortened telomeres have been documented in various pathological states associated with aging. Human activity is driven by NADH and ATP produced from nutrients, and the resulting NAD and AMP play a predominant role in energy regulation. Caloric restriction increases both AMP and NAD and is known to extend the healthspan (healthy lifespan) of animals. Silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), the NAD-dependent deacetylase, attenuates telomere shortening, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a master modulator of gene expression, is phosphorylated by AMP kinase and deacetylated by SIRT1. Thus, PGC-1α is a key component of the circadian oscillator that integrates the mammalian clock and energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species produced in clock mutants result in telomere shortening. The circadian rhythms produced by clock genes and lifestyle factors are ultimately controlled by the human brain and drive homeostatic and hedonic feeding and daily activity. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute. This article was published in Nutr Rev and referenced in Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences

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