Author(s): Hartman DS, Hayes WS, Choyke PL, Tibbetts GP
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Leiomyosarcoma is the second most common primary retroperitoneal tumor in adults. Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma exhibits three major growth patterns: (a) completely extravascular (extraluminal) (62\% of cases), (b) completely intravascular (intraluminal) (5\% of cases), and (c) extra- and intraluminal (33\% of cases). The usual clinical manifestation is a large abdominal mass. Intraluminal leiomyosarcoma may be accompanied by symptoms referable to venous thrombosis. The variable gross features and potential for intravascular extension result in various radiologic appearances, the most common being a large, partially necrotic soft-tissue mass in the retroperitoneum with or without extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging typically show a nonfatty, necrotic retroperitoneal mass and a vascular component when it is present. Ultrasound and angiography may also be useful, especially if vascular involvement is suspected from other imaging studies. Treatment of choice is surgical excision, which is frequently impossible due to the invasiveness of the tumor. Prognosis is related to extent of invasion and the adequacy of resection. Long-term prognosis is poor, and most patients die of local recurrence or distant metastasis.
This article was published in Radiographics
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy