Author(s): Beleza P, Pinho J
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Abstract About one-quarter of patients with refractory focal epilepsies have frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The typical seizure semiology for FLE includes unilateral clonic, tonic asymmetric or hypermotor seizures. Interictal electroencephalograms (EEG) usually reveal interictal epileptiform discharges and rhythmical midline theta, which has localizing value. The usefulness of ictal EEG recordings is limited by frequent muscle artifacts in motor seizures and because a large portion of the frontal lobe cortex is "hidden" to scalp electrodes. Ictal single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography are able to localize FLE in about one-third of patients only. A pre-surgical evaluation should include, whenever possible, a subclassification of FLE as dorsolateral frontal, mesial frontal or basal frontal lobe epilepsy to allow a minimal cortical resection. A review of the typical findings of seizure semiology, interictal and ictal EEG regarding the different FLE subtypes is given. Etiology, medical treatment and surgery are also discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in J Clin Neurosci
and referenced in International Journal of Neurorehabilitation