Author(s): Cowie CC, Rust KF, Ford ES, Eberhardt MS, ByrdHolt DD,
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalences of diagnosed diabetes, and undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes using fasting and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test values, in the U.S. during 2005-2006. We then compared the prevalences of these conditions with those in 1988-1994. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 2005-2006, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included a probability sample of 7,267 people aged > or =12 years. Participants were classified according to glycemic status by interview for diagnosed diabetes and by fasting and 2-h glucoses measured in subsamples. RESULTS: In 2005-2006, the crude prevalence of total diabetes in people aged > or =20 years was 12.9\%, of which approximately 40\% was undiagnosed. In people aged > or =20 years, the crude prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 25.7\% and of impaired glucose tolerance was 13.8\%, with almost 30\% having either. Over 40\% of individuals had diabetes or pre-diabetes. Almost one-third of the elderly had diabetes, and three-quarters had diabetes or pre-diabetes. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was approximately twice as high in non-Hispanic blacks (P < 0.0001) and Mexican Americans (P = 0.0001), whereas undiagnosed diabetes was not higher. Crude prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in people aged > or =20 years rose from 5.1\% in 1988-1994 to 7.7\% in 2005-2006 (P = 0.0001); this was significant after accounting for differences in age and sex, particularly in non-Hispanic blacks. Prevalences of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes were generally stable, although the proportion of total diabetes that was undiagnosed decreased in Mexican Americans. CONCLUSIONS: Over 40\% of people aged > or =20 years have hyperglycemic conditions, and prevalence is higher in minorities. Diagnosed diabetes has increased over time, but other conditions have been relatively stable.
This article was published in Diabetes Care
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism