Author(s): Brzle M, Hediger MA
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Abstract Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is required for the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, catecholamine and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Vitamin C also plays an important role in protection against oxidative stress. Transporters for vitamin C and its oxidized form dehydroascorbate (DHA) are crucial to keep vitamin concentrations optimal in the body. The human SLC23 family consists of the Na(+)-dependent vitamin C transporters SVCT1 (SLC23A1) and SVCT2 (SLC23A2) and the orphan transporter SVCT3 (SLC23A3). Phylogenetically, the SLC23 family belongs to the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter family although no specificity for nucleobases has yet been demonstrated for the human members of this family. In fact, the SVCT1 and SVCT2 transporters are rather specific for ascorbic acid. SVCT1 is expressed in epithelial tissues such as intestine, where it contributes to the maintenance of whole-body ascorbic acid levels, whereas the expression of SVCT2 is relatively widespread either to protect metabolically active cells and specialized tissues from oxidative stress or to deliver ascorbic acid to tissues that are in high demand of the vitamin for enzymatic reactions. DHA, the oxidized form of ascorbic acid is taken up and distributed in the body by facilitated transport via members of the SLC2/GLUT family (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4). Although, the main focus of this review is on the SLC23 family of ascorbic acid transporters, transporters of DHA and nucleobases are also briefly discussed for completeness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Curr Top Membr
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy