alexa Functional characterization of the Betaine gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter BGT-1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes


Journal of Allergy & Therapy

Author(s): Matskevitch I, Wagner CA, Stegen C, Brer S, Noll B

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Betaine is an osmolyte accumulated in cells during osmotic cell shrinkage. The canine transporter mediating cellular accumulation of the osmolyte betaine and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (BGT-1) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed by two-electrode voltage clamp and tracer flux studies. Exposure of oocytes expressing BGT-1 to betaine or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depolarized the cell membrane in the current clamp mode and induced an inward current under voltage clamp conditions. At 1 mM substrate the induced currents decreased in the following order: betaine = GABA > diaminobutyric acid = beta-alanine > proline = quinidine > dimethylglycine > glycine > sarcosine. Both the Vmax and Km of GABA- and betaine-induced currents were voltage-dependent, and GABA- and betaine-induced currents and radioactive tracer uptake were strictly Na+-dependent but only partially dependent on the presence of Cl-. The apparent affinity of GABA decreased with decreasing Na+ concentrations. The Km of Na+ also depended on the GABA and Cl- concentration. A decrease of the Cl- concentration reduced the apparent affinity for Na+ and GABA, and a decrease of the Na+ concentration reduced the apparent affinity for Cl- and GABA. A comparison of 22Na+-, 36Cl--, and 14C-labeled GABA and 14C-labeled betaine fluxes and GABA- and betaine-induced currents yielded a coupling ratio of Na+/Cl-/organic substrate of 3:1:1 or 3:2:1. Based on the data, a transport model of ordered binding is proposed in which GABA binds first, Na+ second, and Cl- third. In conclusion, BGT-1 displays significant functional differences from the other members of the GABA transporter family.

This article was published in J Biol Chem and referenced in Journal of Allergy & Therapy

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