Author(s): Karan V, Vitorovi S, Tutundzi V, Poleksi V
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Abstract Copper sulfate is one of the most widely used algicides for the control of phytoplankton in lakes, reservoirs, and ponds. It is also used for aquatic weed control. To study the toxic effects of copper on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), toxicity tests were carried out. Fish recovery in copper-free water was followed. After a 14-day period of exposure to five concentrations of copper sulfate (0.25-4.0 mg/L CuSO4, values ranging from approximately 5 to 70\% of the 96-h LC-50) and a recovery period of the same duration, activities of the functional enzymes alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the blood serum and gills were determined. Because the gills are the known target organ for copper, changes in gill structure were investigated as well. In all exposure groups for all the enzymes studied, an increase in activity was noted after 14 days. The increase in AP activity was the most pronounced in both gills and serum of carp exposed to the highest concentration tested (4 mg/L). After a "recovery" period, compared with the end of treatment, a decrease in enzyme activities was recorded, indicating eventual recovery from the Cu-induced stress (the only exception being the ALT activity in gills in the highest CuSO4 concentration). The results of biochemical analysis were confirmed by histopathology. Lesions such as epithelial hyperplasia, curling of secondary lamellae, and changes in chloride cells were observed on the gills, and their severity increased with increased toxicant concentration. Most of the changes were reversible, as exhibited by gill histopathology after the recovery period.
This article was published in Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development