Author(s): Kurosawa A, Adachi N
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Abstract Artemis is a structure-specific endonuclease when associated with and phosphorylated by DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. This structure-specific endonuclease is responsible for the resolution of hairpin coding ends in V(D)J recombination. In DNA double-strand break repair, Artemis is implicated in the end-processing step of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. Recently, we have demonstrated that the involvement of Artemis in NHEJ depends on the type of DNA damage. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that the end-processing activity is not the only function of Artemis. Indeed, Artemis is rapidly phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated in response to DNA damage, and such phosphorylation of Artemis appears to be involved in the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints. These findings suggest that Artemis is a multifunctional protein participating in the maintenance of genome integrity at two distinct levels; one at the end processing step of NHEJ, and the other at the signaling pathway of cell cycle regulation. Therefore, understanding Artemis function may give us profound insights into the DNA repair network. In this review, we summarize the functions and regulation of Artemis.
This article was published in J Radiat Res
and referenced in Gene Technology