Author(s): Dashtban M, Schraft H, Syed TA, Qin W
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Abstract Lignin, the most abundant aromatic biopolymer on Earth, is extremely recalcitrant to degradation. By linking to both hemicellulose and cellulose, it creates a barrier to any solutions or enzymes and prevents the penetration of lignocellulolytic enzymes into the interior lignocellulosic structure. Some basidiomycetes white-rot fungi are able to degrade lignin efficiently using a combination of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, organic acids, mediators and accessory enzymes. This review describes ligninolytic enzyme families produced by these fungi that are involved in wood decay processes, their molecular structures, biochemical properties and the mechanisms of action which render them attractive candidates in biotechnological applications. These enzymes include phenol oxidase (laccase) and heme peroxidases [lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP)]. Accessory enzymes such as H(2)O(2)-generating oxidases and degradation mechanisms of plant cell-wall components in a non-enzymatic manner by production of free hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are also discussed.
This article was published in Int J Biochem Mol Biol
and referenced in Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry