Author(s): Martino A, Poccia F
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Abstract The knowledge of several signals influencing Dendritic Cell (DC) functions is crucial to manipulate the immune system for new vaccination therapies. Our recent findings provide a new model of intervention on DC system suggesting novel therapeutic implications. T, NK, and gammadelta T cell stimuli may enhance DC maturation, Th polarization and trigger the adaptive immune response. Regulatory effects of gammadelta T cells on inflammation and immune responses may be mediated by their interaction with DCs and they are analyzed in the last years in humans and mice. In humans, Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells represent the most part of circulating gammadelta T cells and are activated by non-peptidic molecules derived from different microorganisms or abnormal metabolic routes. They share both NK-like and effector/memory T cell features, and among these the possibility to interact with DCs. Co-culture of immature DCs with activated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells allows DCs to acquire features of mature DCs complementing the migratory activity, up-regulating the chemokine receptors, and antigen presentation. Similarly to the NK-derived signals, DC activation is mostly mediated by soluble factors secreted by gammadelta T cells. Many non-peptidic molecules including nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates and pyrophosphomonoester drugs stimulate the activity of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells in vitro and in vivo. The relatively low in vivo toxicity of many of these drugs makes possible novel vaccine and immune-based strategies, through DCs, for infectious and neoplastic diseases.
This article was published in Curr Mol Med
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology