Author(s): Kanda N, Watanabe S
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Abstract Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids. We studied the in vitro effects of gangliosides on Th1 and Th2 cytokine production in PHA-stimulated human T cells. Gangliosides GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b (each 100 nM) enhanced PHA-induced IL-2 secretion of peripheral blood T cells approximately 4-fold and enhanced that of IFN-gamma 3- to 4-fold compared with controls. These gangliosides decreased PHA-induced IL-4 secretion by 50-53\% and that of IL-5 by 53-63\% compared with controls, respectively. The other gangliosides did not alter the secretion of Th1 or Th2 cytokines. RT-PCR showed that GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b enhanced PHA-induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma transcription and suppressed that of IL-4 and IL-5. Transient transfection assays of Jurkat T cells showed that GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b enhanced PHA-induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma promoter activities but suppressed those of IL-4 and IL-5. The cAMP analogue dibutyryl cAMP and the cAMP-elevating agents forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine each reversed GD1b-, GT1b-, and GQ1b-induced stimulation of IL-2 and IFN-gamma production and inhibition of IL-4 and IL-5 production at the levels of proteins, transcription, and promoter activities. GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b suppressed PHA-induced increase in cAMP level in T cells. These gangliosides suppressed PHA-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in T cells. These results suggest that GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b may enhance Th1 cytokine production while suppressing Th2 production by inhibiting adenylate cyclase activity.
This article was published in J Immunol
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