Author(s): Gomceli I, Demiriz B, Tez M
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Abstract Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection, as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, there are still 700,000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80\% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis. None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates: at present, the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28\%. Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation, injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia. It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating, sustaining and advancing tumor growth. It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic. Additional mutations can be acquired, and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype. Intestinalization of gastric units, which is called "intestinal metaplasia"; phenotypic antralization of fundic units, which is called "spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia"; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis. Also, an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma. However, the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial. Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation, and our paper attempts to highlight recent progress in this field of cancer research.
This article was published in World J Gastroenterol
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System