Author(s): Ciftci AO, Senocak ME, Bykpamuku N, Hisnmez A
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Abstract A retrospective clinical study was performed to determine the incidence, management, and outcome of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) caused by caustic ingestion in children. Of 220 patients who sustained caustic substance ingestion and were treated at our unit between 1976 and 1996, 168 ingested alkaline substances; of these, 9 children (5.3\%) developed GOO in addition to esophageal strictures. The remaining 52 patients ingested acid agents, and 2 of them (3.8\%) presented with GOO without esophageal strictures. The overall incidence of corrosive GOO was 5\% (n = 11). The mean age of the patients with GOO was 5.7 +/- 2.8 years (range 2-14) with a female:male ratio of 6:5. Sodium hydroxide (n = 6), potassium hydroxide (n = 3), and hydrochloric acid (n = 2) were the ingested caustic agents. The patients were subdivided into two groups according to serial endoscopic and radiologic findings: group I: moderate (dense superficial and spotty ulcerations with intact mucosa) mucosal injury with partial pyloric obstruction; and group II: severe (deep ulcerations, extreme hemorrhagic erosions, eschar formation with white plaques) mucosal injury with complete pyloric obstruction. Group I consisted of 5 patients who ingested alkali agents while group II included 6 who presented with ingestion of alkaline (n = 4) and acid (n = 2) agents. Surgical treatment included Billroth I (n = 6) operations performed in group II and Finney (n = 3) and Heineke-Mikulicz (n = 2) pyloroplasty procedures done in group I. All patients are alive without any complaints. Fiberoptic endoscopy should be the preferred method of evaluating a patient with ingestion of a corrosive agent. It determines the presence of injury and assesses the extent of damage, establishing the diagnosis and allowing therapy to be instituted immediately. Our experience revealed that substantial damage has occurred early after ingestion, and early surgical intervention has decreased the morbidity and mortality. The extent of the mucosal injury and status of the pylorus and antrum determined the type of surgical treatment. A Billroth I procedure recommended for severely injured mucosa with complete pyloric obstruction, and pyloroplasty for moderate mucosal injury associated with partially obstructed but still viable pylorus. In contrast to the current belief, alkali ingestion also has a high risk of corrosive gastric injury causing GOO, which should be considered during assessment of the injury. We emphasize that a detailed evaluation of radiologic and especially endoscopic findings is very important for determining the timing, necessity, and type of appropriate surgical treatment.
This article was published in Pediatr Surg Int
and referenced in Journal of Surgery