Author(s): Charles R, Jayawardhana T, Eaton P
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Abstract BACKGROUND: The key to understanding the full significance of oxidants in health and disease is the development of tools and methods that allow the study of proteins that sense and transduce changes in cellular redox. Oxidant-reactive deprotonated thiols commonly operate as redox sensors in proteins and a variety of methods have been developed that allow us to monitor their oxidative modification. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: This outline review specifically focuses on gel-based methods used to detect, quantify and identify protein thiol oxidative modifications. The techniques we discuss fall into one of two broad categories. Firstly, methods that allow oxidation of thiols in specific proteins or the global cellular pool to be monitored are discussed. These typically utilise thiol-labelling reagents that add a reporter moiety (e.g. affinity tag, fluorophore, chromophore), in which loss of labelling signifies oxidation. Secondly, we outline methods that allow specific thiol oxidation states of proteins (e.g. S-sulfenylation, S-nitrosylation, S-thionylation and interprotein disulfide bond formation) to be investigated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: A variety of different gel-based methods for identifying thiol proteins that are sensitive to oxidative modifications have been developed. These methods can aid the detection and quantification of thiol redox state, as well as identifying the sensor protein. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: By understanding how cellular redox is sensed and transduced to a functional effect by protein thiol redox sensors, this will help us better appreciate the role of oxidants in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Current methods to study reactive oxygen species - pros and cons and biophysics of membrane proteins. Guest Editor: Christine Winterbourn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Biochim Biophys Acta
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics