Author(s): Fluge , Bruland O, Akslen LA, Lillehaug JR, Varhaug JE
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Abstract We used cDNA microarrays to study gene expression in fresh frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) specimens. Seven clinically aggressive carcinomas were included, comprising poorly differentiated PTC and tumors with extensive local invasion or synchronous distant metastases. Ten differentiated (classic) papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and non-neoplastic thyroid tissues were also investigated. TaqMan quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry verified the differential gene expression. The B-Raf gene was mutated with a T-->A transversion at nucleotide 1799 (V600E) in 8 of 10 differentiated PTC, and in 4 of 7 aggressive carcinomas. Among genes markedly and equally over-expressed in carcinomas of both the aggressive and classic PtC groups, compared to normal thyroid tissue, were CBP/p300 transactivator (CItED1), fibronectin, growth/differentiation factor 15, potassium inwardly rectifying channel KCNJ2, glutaminyl peptide cyclotransferase, WNT7A, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV. A marked upregulation in carcinomas of P-cadherin mRNA and protein concomitant with E-cadherin downregulation, indicates a possible P-E cadherin "switch" in PTC. The growth factor homologue Nel-like 2, dual specificity phosphatase 5, the serine protease kallikrein 10, and also the tight junction genes claudin 1 and claudin 16, were upregulated in classic PTC but not in aggressive tumors, which may be consistent with altered cell polarity in the dedifferentiated PtC. The aggressive, poorly differentiated PtC group was specifically characterized by marked upregulation of several genes related to cell proliferation such as cell division cycle 2 (CDC2), CDC7, kinesin-like 5, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2C, and topoisomerase IIalpha, and by upregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins such as seprase, extracellular matrix protein 1, and several collagens. These aggressive tumors were also characterized by overexpression of the integrin ligand periostin, and in some biopsies also of osteopontin and of the upstream Rac-regulator dedicator of cytokinesis 10 (DOCK10). These data are interpreted to be consistent with altered cell motility, extracellular matrix remodeling and increased cell proliferation, as important processes in PTC tumor progression.
This article was published in Thyroid
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics