Author(s): Maiti AK
Drug resistance in cancer cells involves complex molecular mechanisms and ovarian carcinoma cells become resistant to chlorambucil (Cbl) after continuous treatment. This drug- and ionizing radiation-resistant cells have lower level of endogenous ROS (reactive oxygen species) compared with sensitive cells. Elevation of the cellular ROS level by exogenous ROS generation increases the sensitivity of Cbl to resistant cells. In contrast, antioxidants prevent the sensitization of resistant cells to Cbl by H(2)O(2), COS (chronic oxidative stress) or NOO(-). The molecular mechanism of drug sensitivity with COS has been investigated by microarray gene expressions followed by gene network analysis and it reveals that a cdc42/rac1 guanine exchange factor, ARHGEF6, with p53 and DNA-Pkc (PRKDC) is central to induce apoptosis in Cbl(cos) (Cbl with COS) cells. mRNA and protein levels of major gene network pathway differ significantly in Cbl(cos) cells than in Cbl-treated cells. Moreover, DNA-PKc physically interacts with ARHGEF6 and p53 mostly in the nucleus of Cbl-treated cells, whereas in Cbl(cos)-treated cells, its interactions are mostly in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that low doses of Cbl and very low doses of COS together kill Cbl-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells and ARHGEF6 signaling may have an instrumental role in induction of apoptosis in Cbl(cos) cells.