Author(s): PejawarGaddy S, Rajawat Y, Hilioti Z, Xue J, Gaddy DF,
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Abstract Virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine technology due to their safety and ability to elicit strong immune responses. Chimeric VLPs can extend this technology to low immunogenicity foreign antigens. However, insertion of foreign epitopes into the sequence of self-assembling proteins can have unpredictable effects on the assembly process. We aimed to generate chimeric bovine papillomavirus (BPV) VLPs displaying a repetitive array of polyanionic docking sites on their surface. These VLPs can serve as platform for covalent coupling of polycationic fusion proteins. We generated baculoviruses expressing chimeric BPV L1 protein with insertion of a polyglutamic-cysteine residue in the BC, DE, HI loops and the H4 helix. Expression in insect cells yielded assembled VLPs only from insertion in HI loop. Insertion in DE loop and H4 helix resulted in partially formed VLPs and capsomeres, respectively. The polyanionic sites on the surface of VLPs and capsomeres were decorated with a polycationic MUC1 peptide containing a polyarginine-cysteine residue fused to 20 amino acids of the MUC1 tandem repeat through electrostatic interactions and redox-induced disulfide bond formation. MUC1-conjugated fully assembled VLPs induced robust activation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, which could then present MUC1 antigen to MUC1-specific T cell hybridomas and primary naïve MUC1-specific T cells obtained from a MUC1-specific TCR transgenic mice. Immunization of human MUC1 transgenic mice, where MUC1 is a self-antigen, with the VLP vaccine induced MUC1-specific CTL, delayed the growth of MUC1 transplanted tumors and elicited complete tumor rejection in some animals.
This article was published in Cancer Immunol Immunother
and referenced in Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense
- Eugene Stephane Mananga
On Fer and Floquet-Magnus expansions: Application in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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