alexa Generation of free radicals from freshly fractured silica dust. Potential role in acute silica-induced lung injury.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Author(s): Vallyathan V, Shi XL, Dalal NS, Irr W, Castranova V

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Abstract Data presented here indicate that freshly fractured silica exhibits surface characteristics and biologic reactivity distinct from aged silica, and on this basis we propose that these surface features may lead to enhanced manifestations of lung injury. Grinding of silica produces approximately 10(18) Si and Si-O (silicon-based) radicals per gram of dust on the particulate surface which are characterized by an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum centered around g = 2.0015. These silicon-based radicals react with aqueous media to produce OH radicals, which are demonstrable using a DMPO spin trap. The concentration of silicon-based radicals in silica decreases with aging in air and exhibits a half-life of approximately 30 h, whereas its ability to generate OH radicals in aqueous solution decreases with a half-life of approximately 20 h. However, on storage in aqueous media, the concentration of silicon-based radicals and the dust's ability to generate OH radicals decrease significantly within a few minutes. Freshly ground silica is also more biologically reactive than aged silica, because freshly crushed silica activates a greater respiratory burst in alveolar macrophages than aged silica, i.e., storage of ground dust in air decreases silica-induced superoxide anion secretion, hydrogen peroxide release, and NBT reduction by 25\%, 68\%, and 43\%, respectively. Furthermore, compared to aged silica, freshly ground silica exhibits a greater cytotoxic effect on cellular membrane integrity, i.e., a 1.5-fold increase in LDH release from macrophages, a 36-fold increase in hemolytic activity, and a three-fold increase in the ability to induce lipid peroxidation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) This article was published in Am Rev Respir Dis and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology

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