Author(s): Vink JM, Groot AS, Kerkhof GA, Boomsma DI
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Abstract We studied the influence of genetic factors on individual differences in morningness-eveningness in a sample of Dutch twin families. Data were collected from adolescent twins (mean age 17.8 yr) and their parents (mean age of fathers 48.0 yr and of mothers 46.0 yr) and a sample of older twins (mean age 46.5 yr). Scores on morningness-eveningness were rated on a 5-point scale. Parents were more morning oriented than their children, and women were more morning oriented than men. With a twin-family study, separation of genetic and environmental influences on variation in morningness-eveningness is possible. Including parents and older twins in the study makes it possible to explore generation differences in these effects. The correlation between monozygotic twins was more than twice the correlation between dizygotic twins. This indicates that genetic effects may not operate in an additive manner. Therefore, a model that included genetic dominance was explored. Biometrical model fitting showed no sex differences for the magnitude of genetic and environmental factors. The total heritability--the sum of additive and nonadditive genetic influences--for morningness-eveningness was 44\% for the younger generation and 47\% for the older generation. However, the genetic correlation between the generations turned out to be lower than 0.5, suggesting that different genes for morningness-eveningness are expressed in both generations.
This article was published in Chronobiol Int
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy