Author(s): Mahajan RC, Farooq U, Dubey ML, Malla N
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Abstract Malaria is still a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Malaria vaccine is highly desirable as an adjunct to existing malaria control measures. The polymorphisms in malaria vaccine candidates antigens might be a hurdle in developing an effective vaccine. The present article reviews the genetic polymorphism in several antigens expressed on the parasite surface, which are targets for immunological responses of the host and are good candidates for vaccine development against P. falciparum. Variable regions of most genes are generally dimorphic probably as a result of intragenic recombinations. Each allele in turn shows polymorphism resulting from point mutations, or other mechanisms. Several antigens like merozoite surface protein-1 and 2 (MSP-1 and MSP-2) and S antigen show high polymorphism while in others like circumsporozoite protein (CSP), apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) functional constraints limit the degree of polymorphism. Polymorphism reported in these genes is discussed.
This article was published in Indian J Pathol Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology