alexa Genetic polymorphisms and micronucleus formation: a review of the literature.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

Author(s): Iarmarcovai G, Bonassi S, Botta A, Baan RA, Orsire T

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The formation of micronuclei (MN) is extensively used in molecular epidemiology as a biomarker of chromosomal damage, genome instability, and eventually of cancer risk. The occurrence of MN represents an integrated response to chromosome-instability phenotypes and altered cellular viabilities caused by genetic defects and/or exogenous exposures to genotoxic agents. The present article reviews human population studies addressing the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and MN formation, and provides insight into how genetic variants could modulate the effect of environmental exposures to genotoxic agents, host factors (gender, age), lifestyle characteristics (smoking, alcohol, folate), and diseases (coronary artery disease, cancer). Seventy-two studies measuring MN frequency either in peripheral blood lymphocytes or exfoliated cells were retrieved after an extensive search of the MedLine/PubMed database. The effect of genetic polymorphisms on MN formation is complex, influenced to a different extent by several polymorphisms of proteins or enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair proteins, and folate-metabolism enzymes. This heterogeneity reflects the presence of multiple external and internal exposures, and the large number of chromosomal alterations eventually resulting in MN formation. Polymorphisms of EPHX, GSTT1, and GSTM1 are of special importance in modulating the frequency of chromosomal damage in individuals exposed to genotoxic agents and in unexposed populations. Variants of ALDH2 genes are consistently associated with MN formation induced by alcohol drinking. Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations (with or without breast cancer) show enhanced sensitivity to clastogens. Some evidence further suggests that DNA repair (XRCC1 and XRCC3) and folate-metabolism genes (MTHFR) also influence MN formation. As some of the findings are based on relatively small numbers of subjects, larger scale studies are required that include scoring of additional endpoints (e.g., MN in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization, analysis of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds), and address gene-gene interactions. This article was published in Mutat Res and referenced in Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

  • 9th International Conference and Expo on Molecular & Cancer Biomarkers
    August 23-24, 2017 Birmingham, UK
  • 2nd International Conference on Medical Imaging and Diagnosis
    London, UK
  • 22nd International Conference on Cancer Drugs and Therapeutics
    Paris, France
  • International Conference on Oncology Nursing and Cancer Care
    Singapore City, Singapore
  • World Summit on Cell Signalling and Cancer Therapy
    Toronto, Canada
  • International Conference on Radiology and Imaging
    New York, USA

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords