Author(s): KuglerSteigmeier ME, Friederich U, Graf U, Lutz WK, Maier P,
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Abstract Various substituted aniline derivatives were tested for genotoxicity in several short-term tests in order to examine the hypothesis that a substitution at both ortho positions (2,6-disubstitution) could prevent genotoxicity due to steric hindrance of an enzymatic activation to electrophilic intermediates. In the Salmonella/microsome assay, 2,6-dialkylsubstituted anilines and 2,4,6-trimethylaniline (2,4,6-TMA) were weakly mutagenic in strain TA100 when 20\% S9 mix was used, although effects were small compared to those of 2,4-dimethylaniline and 2,4,5-trimethylaniline (2,4,5-TMA). In Drosophila melanogaster, however, 2,4,6-TMA and 2,4,6-trichloroaniline (TCA) were mutagenic in the wing spot test at 2-3 times lower doses than 2,4,5-TMA. In the 6-thioguanine resistance test in cultured fibroblasts, 2,4,6-TMA was again mutagenic at lower doses than 2,4,5-TMA. Two methylene-bis-aniline derivatives were also tested with the above methods: 4,4'-methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) was moderately genotoxic in all 3 test systems whereas 4,4'-methylene-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylaniline) (MMEA) showed no genotoxicity at all. DNA binding studies in rats, however, revealed that both MOCA and MMEA produced DNA adducts in the liver at levels typically found for moderately strong genotoxic carcinogens. These results indicate that the predictive value of the in vitro test systems and particularly the Salmonella/microsome assay is inadequate to detect genotoxicity in aromatic amines. Genotoxicity seems to be a general property of aniline derivatives and does not seem to be greatly influenced by substitution at both ortho positions.
This article was published in Mutat Res
and referenced in Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs