alexa Genotoxicity of dithiocarbamates and their metabolites.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

Author(s): Franeki J, Bratuli N, Pavlica M, Papes D, Franeki J, Bratuli N, Pavlica M, Papes D

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Abstract Dithiocarbamate fungicides are widely used in agriculture for protection of vegetable crops and seeds. The mutagenicity spectra of ziram, thiram, zineb S-65 and ETU were determined by employing a battery of test systems included the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium (strains TA98, TA100, TA102, TA104, TA1535, TA1538), the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain D61.M) and the shallot Allium ascalonicum somatic cells. Plate incorporation assay with S. typhimurium demonstrated direct mutagenicity of ziram in TA100 and thiram in TA100 and TA98 whereas zineb S-65 and ETU were ineffective. Tests for mitotic chromosome malsegregation in S. cerevisiae D61.M gave positive results with thiram, zineb S-69 and ETU. In shallot somatic root-tip cells ziram, thiram and ETU induced different genetic damages e.g. mitotic disturbance, polyploidy and micronuclei.
This article was published in Mutat Res and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

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