Author(s): Zang Y, Zhong Y, Luo Y, Kong ZM, Zang Y, Zhong Y, Luo Y, Kong ZM
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Abstract In this paper, several studies were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of two pesticides, Imidacloprid and RH-5849, for earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Earthworms were exposed in different exposure systems to evaluate their acute toxicity and the genotoxicity of the two pesticides was evaluated by using the method of sperm deformity assessment, micronucleus test of root tip cells in Vicia faba, a mouse bone-marrow micronucleus test, and comet assay. LC(50) (interpolated concentration at which 50\% mortality of test population occurs) for earthworms varied in different exposure systems. The results indicated that Imidacloprid was consistently more toxic than RH-5849 in all exposure systems. In this study, sperm deformity test was used to detect the potential adverse influences of pesticides on the reproduction of earthworms. The results demonstrated that significant induction of sperm deformity (p<0.01) and a dose-effect relationship displayed at Imidacloprid concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/kg dry soil. However, the sperm deformity frequency of groups exposed to RH-5849 did not show significant difference (p>0.05) from the control until the dose reached 100 mg/kg dry soil. The results of the V. faba micronucleus tests showed that micronuclei frequency of the exposed group did not show significant difference (p>0.05) from the control until the concentration of Imidacloprid and RH-5849 reached 100 mg/ml. The results of the mouse bone-marrow micronuclei test also indicate that two pesticides did not show significant effects (p>0.05) on the micronuclei frequency in mice bone-marrow cells until the dose reached 100 mg/kg for Imidacloprid and 300 mg/kg for RH-5849 (2/3 LD(50)). Although no genotoxicity was detected by using the micronucleus tests, the results of the comet assay showed that the two pesticides induce significant DNA damage (p<0.01) in earthworms and dose-effect relationships were displayed. The 'earthworm comet assay' is a rapid and sensitive way to screen chemicals or terrestrial environments for their DNA-damaging properties.
This article was published in Environ Pollut
and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology