alexa Geographic distribution of liver and stomach cancers in Thailand in relation to estimated dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosodimethylamine.


Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis

Author(s): Mitacek EJ, Brunnemann KD, Suttajit M, Caplan LS, Gagna CE,

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Abstract It is our working hypothesis that the high rate of the liver and gastric cancers in North and Northeast Thailand is associated with increased daily dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Samples of fresh and preserved Thai foods were systematically collected and analyzed from 1988 to 1996 and from 1998 to 2005. Consumption frequencies of various food items were determined on the basis of a dietary questionnaire given to 467 adults (212 males and 255 females) from 1998 to 2005. Food consumption data for the preceding and current year were collected and intakes (day, week, and month) of nitrate, nitrite, and NDMA were calculated. The trends in liver and stomach cancer age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) in four regions of Thailand were compared with the dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and NDMA in those same geographic regions. Mean daily intakes of nitrate of 155.7 mg/kg, of nitrite of 7.1 mg/kg, and of NDMA of 1.08 microg/kg per day were found. Significant differences in dietary nitrate, nitrite, and NDMA intakes were seen between various Thai regions (P < 0.0001), and these corresponded to the variations in liver and stomach cancer ASR values between the regions. Dietary factors are likely to play key roles in different stages of liver and stomach carcinogenesis in Thailand. This article was published in Nutr Cancer and referenced in Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis

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