alexa Glucose enhances human macrophage LOX-1 expression: role for LOX-1 in glucose-induced macrophage foam cell formation.


Internal Medicine: Open Access

Author(s): Li L, Sawamura T, Renier G

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Abstract Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a newly identified receptor for oxidized LDL that is expressed by vascular cells. LOX-1 is upregulated in aortas of diabetic rats and thus may contribute to the pathogenesis of human diabetic atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the regulation of human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) LOX-1 expression by high glucose and the role of LOX-1 in glucose-induced foam cell formation. Incubation of human MDMs with glucose (5.6 to 30 mmol/L) enhanced, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, LOX-1 gene and protein expression. Induction of LOX-1 gene expression by high glucose was abolished by antioxidants, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and activated protein-1 (AP-1) inhibitors. In human MDMs cultured with high glucose, increased expression of PKCbeta2 and enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 was observed. Activation of these kinases was inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and by the PKCbeta inhibitor LY379196. High glucose also enhanced the binding of nuclear proteins extracted from human MDMs to the NF-kappaB and AP-1 regulatory elements of the LOX-1 gene promoter. This effect was abrogated by NAC and PKC/MAPK inhibitors. Finally, high glucose induced human macrophage-derived foam cell formation through a LOX-1-dependent pathway. Overall, these results demonstrate that high glucose concentrations enhance LOX-1 expression in human MDMs and that this effect is associated with foam cell formation. Pilot data showing that MDMs of patients with type 2 diabetes overexpress LOX-1 support the relevance of this work to human diabetic atherosclerosis. This article was published in Circ Res and referenced in Internal Medicine: Open Access

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