alexa Glucuronidation of statins in animals and humans: a novel mechanism of statin lactonization.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability

Author(s): Prueksaritanont T, Subramanian R, Fang X, Ma B, Qiu Y,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The active forms of all marketed hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors share a common dihydroxy heptanoic or heptenoic acid side chain. In this study, we present evidence for the formation of acyl glucuronide conjugates of the hydroxy acid forms of simvastatin (SVA), atorvastatin (AVA), and cerivastatin (CVA) in rat, dog, and human liver preparations in vitro and for the excretion of the acyl glucuronide of SVA in dog bile and urine. Upon incubation of each statin (SVA, CVA or AVA) with liver microsomal preparations supplemented with UDP-glucuronic acid, two major products were detected. Based on analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography, UV spectroscopy, and/or liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry analysis, these metabolites were identified as a glucuronide conjugate of the hydroxy acid form of the statin and the corresponding delta-lactone. By means of an LC-NMR technique, the glucuronide structure was established to be a 1-O-acyl-beta-D-glucuronide conjugate of the statin acid. The formation of statin glucuronide and statin lactone in human liver microsomes exhibited modest intersubject variability (3- to 6-fold; n = 10). Studies with expressed UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) revealed that both UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 were capable of forming the glucuronide conjugates and the corresponding lactones for all three statins. Kinetic studies of statin glucuronidation and lactonization in liver microsomes revealed marked species differences in intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) values for SVA (but not for AVA or CVA), with the highest CL(int) observed in dogs, followed by rats and humans. Of the statins studied, SVA underwent glucuronidation and lactonization in human liver microsomes, with the lowest CL(int) (0.4 microl/min/mg of protein for SVA versus approximately 3 microl/min/mg of protein for AVA and CVA). Consistent with the present in vitro findings, substantial levels of the glucuronide conjugate (approximately 20\% of dose) and the lactone form of SVA [simvastatin (SV); approximately 10\% of dose] were detected in bile following i.v. administration of [(14)C]SVA to dogs. The acyl glucuronide conjugate of SVA, upon isolation from an in vitro incubation, underwent spontaneous cyclization to SV. Since the rate of this lactonization was high under conditions of physiological pH, the present results suggest that the statin lactones detected previously in bile and/or plasma following administration of SVA to animals or of AVA or CVA to animals and humans, might originate, at least in part, from the corresponding acyl glucuronide conjugates. Thus, acyl glucuronide formation, which seems to be a common metabolic pathway for the hydroxy acid forms of statins, may play an important, albeit previously unrecognized, role in the conversion of active HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors to their latent delta-lactone forms.
This article was published in Drug Metab Dispos and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords