Author(s): Nkabyo YS, Ziegler TR, Gu LH, Watson WH, Jones DP
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Abstract Cellular redox, maintained by the glutathione (GSH)- and thioredoxin (Trx)-dependent systems, has been implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes. The redox state of the GSH system becomes oxidized when cells are induced to differentiate by chemical agents. The aim of this study was to determine the redox state of cellular GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and Trx as a consequence of progression from proliferation to contact inhibition and spontaneous differentiation in colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Results showed a significant decrease in GSH concentration, accompanied by a 40-mV oxidation of the cellular GSH/GSSG redox state and a 28-mV oxidation of the extracellular cysteine/cystine redox state in association with confluency and increase in differentiation markers. The redox state of Trx did not change. Thus the two central cellular antioxidant and redox-regulating systems (GSH and Trx) were independently controlled. According to the Nernst equation, a 30-mV oxidation is associated with a 10-fold change in the reduced/oxidized ratio of a redox-sensitive dithiol motif. Therefore, the measured 40-mV oxidation of the cellular GSH/GSSG couple or the 28-mV oxidation of the extracellular cysteine/cystine couple should be sufficient to function in signaling or regulation of differentiation in Caco-2 cells.
This article was published in Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol
and referenced in Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry