Author(s): Opalenik SR, Ding Q, Mallery SR, Thompson JA
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Abstract Primary murine embryonic fibroblasts transfected with HIV-1 TAT demonstrated decreased levels of high energy phosphates (ATP, GTP, UTP/CTP), adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP), and both NAD+/NADH redox pairs, resulting in a substantial loss of redox poise. A greater than 50\% decrease in intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was accompanied by the extracellular appearance of acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1). Addition of either N-acetyl-L-cysteine or glutathione ester (GSE), but not L-2-oxothiazolidine 4-carboxylate, partially restored intracellular GSH levels and resulted in loss of extracellular FGF-1. Treatment of FGF-1-transduced cells with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in total cellular GSH concentration that was accompanied by the extracellular appearance of FGF-1. Inclusion of GSE during BSO treatment eliminated the extracellular appearance of FGF-1. BSO treatment of cells transfected with a mutant form of FGF-1, in which all three cysteine residues were replaced with serines, also decreased total cellular GSH concentration but failed to induce the extracellular appearance of FGF-1. Collectively, these results suggest that HIV-1 TAT induces a condition of oxidative stress, which mediates cellular secretion of FGF-1, an observation relevant to the pathophysiologic development and progression of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
This article was published in Arch Biochem Biophys
and referenced in Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism