Author(s): Festa ED, QuinonesJenab V
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Abstract Both clinical and rodent studies show sexually dimorphic patterns in the behavioral response to cocaine in all phases of the addiction process (induction, maintenance, and relapse). Clinical and rodent studies also indicate that hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual/estrous cycle modulate cocaine-induced subjective effects in women and locomotor activity in female rats. Evidence suggests that gonadal hormones underlie these observed differences and could be the biological basis of sex-specific differences in cocaine addiction. To study the effects of gonadal hormones on cocaine-induced activity, two approaches have been used. First, studies have examined the role of endogenous hormones through gonadectomy (GDX) and side-by-side comparisons with intact rats. Second, the individual contributions of testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen have been determined by hormone replacement in GDX rats. In this review, we discuss gonadal hormones as the biological basis for the behavioral responses to cocaine, and the clinical implications of these findings.
This article was published in Horm Behav
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy