Author(s): Raja S, Byakod G, Pudakalkatti P
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Abstract Inflammatory periodontal disease is an almost ubiquitous disorder in the adult population. Cases or sites with moderate to advanced disease often continue to show signs of inflammation after non-surgical approach. Our current understanding of periodontal healing is based on a hypothesis by Melcher who proposed that the cell type that repopulates the exposed root surface at the periodontal repair site will define the nature of the attachment/repair that take place. If mesenchymal cells from periodontal ligament/perivascular region of the bone proliferate and colonize the root surface, regeneration occurs. Growth factors are natural cell products that are released or activated when cell division is needed. This action typically occurs during such events as wound healing or tissue regeneration. Activated platelets at the wound margins release several growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, epidermal growth factor etc. Cells adjacent to the injured site also are induced to release growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-I, PDGF, TGF-alpha and TGF-alpha within a few hours after injury. In periodontal regeneration, the coronal re-establishment of the periodontal ligament (PDL) is required together with corresponding cementum and supporting alveolar bone. Thus, agents which promote periodontal ligament fibroblast (PLF) proliferation and migration as well as collagen biosynthesis would appear to be mediators for enhancing new PDL formation. When combinations or cocktails of different factors are used, greater repair is achieved than when individual factors are applied.
This article was published in Int J Dent Hyg
and referenced in Dentistry