Author(s): Joshi R, Phatarpekar A, Currimbhoy Z, Desai M
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Abstract A retrospective review of ten patients (8 girls, 2 boys) admitted over a 9-month period with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is presented. Presenting features included fever and hepatosplenomegaly (10), bleeding manifestations (7), lymphadenopathy (4), skin rash (4), shock (4), jaundice (3), CNS disorder (3), renal failure (2) and arthritis (2). Three infants had familial HLH (FHL) while the other seven patients had acquired (secondary) HLH. Two patients with FHL had very low perforin levels (0 and 0.05\%). There was secondary HLH owing to systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis in two patients, and one each had anaplastic large cell lymphoma, measles with pneumonia, disseminated tuberculosis, dengue hemorrhagic fever and lymphoproliferative disorder. Cytopenia affecting two or three lineages in peripheral blood was present in all while haemophagocytosis in bone marrow was documented in nine patients .Other important laboratory parameters were raised ferritin (9), raised LDH (9), hypertriglyceridaemia (7) and hypofibrinogenaemia (5). The patients were treated according to the HLH2004 protocol. Diagnosis of HLH should be considered early in patients presenting with unremitting fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenias as without appropriate treatment HLH is usually fatal.
This article was published in Ann Trop Paediatr
and referenced in Journal of Computer Science & Systems Biology