alexa hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG in the establishment and evolution of hemochorial placentation.

Journal of Primatology

Author(s): Cole LA

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The evolution of regular chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and hyperglycosylated CG are linked with the evolution of hemochorial placentation in primates. Recent research with humans shows that regular CG promotes spiral artery angiogenesis and hyperglycosylated CG controls invasion by implanting trophoblast cells. It is inferred that the evolution of regular CG and hyperglycosylated CG in early simian primates, the first species to produce these CG forms, established hemochorial placentation in this species. The circulating half-lives, and thus the circulating concentrations, of regular CG and hyperglycosylated CG increased in advanced simian primates and increased further in humans, seemingly causing greater myometrial invasion and superior angiogenesis in hemochorial placentation in advanced primates and humans. Advanced hemochorial placentation is associated with relatively high proportions of pregnancy failures in humans. This can be explained by considering human implantation inadequate in terms of invasion requirements. The demanding implantation required by the human embryo is seemingly dependent on adequate production of hyperglycosylated CG. Failures in hemochorial placentation invasion lead to anoxia and cause preeclampsia and eclampsia uniquely in humans, which can also be attributed to inadequate hyperglycosylated CG signaling. We propose here that inadequate regular CG and hyperglycosylated CG molecules are the evolutionary causes of these obstetric complications in humans. This article was published in J Reprod Immunol and referenced in Journal of Primatology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version