Author(s): Navab M, Berliner JA, Subbanagounder G, Hama S, Lusis AJ,
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Abstract Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) phospholipids containing arachidonic acid at the sn-2 position occurs when a critical concentration of "seeding molecules" derived from the lipoxygenase pathway is reached in LDL. When this critical concentration is reached, the nonenzymatic oxidation of LDL phospholipids produces a series of biologically active, oxidized phospholipids that mediate the cellular events seen in the developing fatty streak. Normal high density lipoprotein (HDL) contains at least 4 enzymes as well as apolipoproteins that can prevent the formation of the LDL-derived oxidized phospholipids or inactivate them after they are formed. In the sense that normal HDL can prevent the formation of or inactivate these inflammatory LDL-derived oxidized phospholipids, normal HDL is anti-inflammatory. HDL from mice that are genetically predisposed to diet-induced atherosclerosis became proinflammatory when the mice are fed an atherogenic diet, injected with LDL-derived oxidized phospholipids, or infected with influenza A virus. Mice that were genetically engineered to be hyperlipidemic on a chow diet and patients with coronary atherosclerosis, despite normal lipid levels, also had proinflammatory HDL. It is proposed that LDL-derived oxidized phospholipids and HDL may be part of a system of nonspecific innate immunity and that the detection of proinflammatory HDL may be a useful marker of susceptibility to atherosclerosis.
This article was published in Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism