alexa Head up versus head down: the costs of imprecision, unreliability, and visual clutter on cue effectiveness for display signaling.
General Science

General Science

Journal of Ergonomics

Author(s): Yeh M, Merlo JL, Wickens CD, Brandenburg DL

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Abstract We conducted 2 experiments to investigate the clutter-scan trade-off between the cost of increasing clutter by overlaying complex information onto the forward field of view using a helmet-mounted display (HMD) and the cost of scanning when presenting this information on a handheld display. In the first experiment, this trade-off was examined in terms of the spatial accuracy of target cuing data in a relatively sparse display; in the second, the spatial accuracy of the cue was varied more radically in an information-rich display. Participants were asked to detect and identify targets hidden in the far domain while performing a monitoring task in the near domain using either an HMD or a handheld display. The results revealed that on a sparse display, the reduced scanning from the HMD presentation of cuing out-weighed the costs of clutter for cued targets, regardless of cue precision, but no benefit was found for uncued targets. When the HMD displayed task-irrelevant information, however, target detection was hindered by the extraneous clutter in the forward field of view relative to the handheld display condition, and this cost of clutter increased as the amount of data that needed to be inspected increased. Potential applications of this research include the development of design considerations for head-up displays for aviation and military applications.
This article was published in Hum Factors and referenced in Journal of Ergonomics

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